Know Your Common Eye Problems

If you have any Queries regarding any eye related issues you are facing, check our questions and answers session here.


Cataract is perhaps the most common eye problem which every individual contracts at some point or the other.. It happens at any age !We are usually born with a clear LENS in our eyes which helps to gather light and information from outside image and help us see. There are other parts like Cornea, Vitreous and Aqueous humour, etc which also help but the major part of our vision is due to our clear lens !
Coagulation of the protein in this lens turns it opaque and our vision turns blurred.

The spheroidal lens gets affected differently in different types of cataract
This may be due to:
1.   Degenerative process of aging where Cataract develops slowly. These are nuclear cataracts.
An age related cataract usually gets speeded up with uncontrolled diabetes, inflammation in the body (acute or chronic). These need to be catered according to need of vision.
2    Due to protein deficiency in childhood  (developmental cataract),
A particular layer may be opaque and rest clear . Needs careful observation and early surgery done if it hampers development of good binocular vision 
3.   Severe trauma( traumatic  flower like cataract) or inflammation ( eye diseases like glaucoma , uveitis etc or chemical injury) 
4.    Congenital Cataract due to hereditary problems or intrauterine diseases. These appear at birth with white reflex in the eyes , need immediate treatment .
5. Secondary Cataracts caused after major eye surgery like that of the retina  or in patients taking steroids.
6. Posterior sub capsular cataracts are strongly related to early vision problems. Photophobia, due to difficult vision in bright light is a prominent complain here. These need early treatment to make the patient work comfortably outdoorsC
7.Cortical Cataract – The cataract starts from the periphery, seen as whitish opaque areas often shaped like a wedge. As they reach the centre, it blocks the light and patients need to seek medical advice and help immediately. Mostly it cannot be realized by symptoms until late.

  • gradual deterioration of eyesight( unilateral or bilateral), cloudy vision,
  • frequent change of spectacles.
  • Eye strain on working , headache and discomfort in eyes are also common features.
  • Drivers may experience rainbow haloes around artificial lights in intumescent( immature) cataract.
  • Many elderly patients fall down not able to see their steps properly , as there is loss of depth perception.
  • Dryness, watering and occasional redness are common when one continues working with a cataract in eyes.
  • Quite frequently many attend clinic for a simple change of power and get diagnosed as advanced cataract as our body keeps adjusting with slow drop of eyesight. I
    In late stages sometimes a mature cataract is noticed as a white dot in the eye.

Q. Is cataract surgery painful/ complicated?
Ans : Not at all. Cataract surgery with modern technology is very smooth , least painful!. It is done as DAY CARE procedure. Can be done under Topical( anaesthetic eye drops) or Local anaestheic . Patient walks back home and can resume normal life by third to seventh day .
As there are nearly no restrictions IT CAN BE OPERATED IN ALL SEASONS OF THE YEAR


Inspite of the eyes being healthy some people need spectacles to see distinctly. this is because of refractive error of the eyes. This can be due to different causes, but is usually due to anatomical changes mostly.
A person needing high minus power in spectacles to correct vision is known as MYOPIC. They usually have short length but big eyeballs
Similarly a HYPERMETROPE is one who needs plus power to correct vision at distance
After the age of 40 usually a person needs additional plus power for near vision , this is PRESBYOPIA.
Sometimes 2 eyes may have different powers in them, this is ANISOMETROPIA.
A straight corrective lens used in spectacle can be a SPHERIC correction
correcting refractive error at a particular meridian or angle is ASTIGMATISM



With increasing use of digital media in all ages at all segments of society , this new problem has emerged. Due to overuse and infrequent blinking and staring at the screen of laptops, television, mobile , tablet or Desktop , the eyes become dry. They start itching , get red , and on rubbing becomes painful. some even develop headache. neglecting eyestrain and stress in early stages lead to sore eyes.
Always there must be breaks of 5 to 10 minutes after one and half hour of computer work. Long hours of computer work requires Lubricating eye drops at least 2 times daily. the more the distance from the screen, the better are the eyes .So instead of Mobile a desktop, or laptop is better. Better to work with sufficient room light. Keeping the screen slightly above or below the optical axis( the central axis of viewing) helps .


Children need to be examined in early years of life. Eye examination must be done before they start reading or writing . The vision starts developing from birth and significantly from 2 years of age . So by 5 years each child must undergo an eye testing by an ophthalmologist. Any abnormality noted like going close to television, frequent blinking, both eyes balls not aligned( squinting) , watering must be immediately cared for.
Allow children to be more outdoors than enjoying indoor activity , which will help them develop good eyesight.

Painful swelling of eyelids


Hygiene of eyes ( cleaning regularly of eyes and lashes with clean water in the morning and after returning from outdoors) must be taught diligently . Otherwise very frequently they rub their eyes, develop soreness, develop lid infection ( BLEPHARITIS), and rarely bleeding from eyelids. These require immediate attention and treatment in clinic.

Squint / refractive error detected early can be treated and operated early to help them develop BINOCULAR vision and depth perception.
AMBLYOPIA is a serious condition were due to pathology/ untreated refractive error , the vision is suppressed permanently in one or both eyes. The child grows up with subnormal vision and faces all its vices sin life .


Sometimes the eye balls may not be aligned together and as one eye looks straight , the other may deviate outwards or inwards. This is known as SQUINT. it can be Exotropia( outwards ) or Eso tropia ( inwards). Sometimes it is not visible always but when a person is tired , stressed or unmindful. this is INTERMITTENT squint. This needs to be treated very early in life as with misaligned eyes there is loss of binocularity of vision, poor vision in one eye and most importantly it looks unpresentable affecting the personality of the individual.



Diabetes is a multisystem disease.. It causes multiple problem in the eye . Uncontrolled diabetes brings early cataract. incidence of Glaucoma also increases with. Diabetes. There are chances of developing Diabetic retinopathy with long standing high blood sugar levels. If untreated the disease is blinding. So regular diabetic screening is a must for all Diabetic patients at intervals of 6 months


With the introduction of digital media in our lives we are all , irrespective of age are more inclined to working , playing, reading or conversing via digital platform . Too much of anything is bad and so is digital platform. While concentrating on the screen of our phones or laptops or desktop we forget to blink normally ! this leads to dryness of eyes which leads to grittiness, foreign body sensation and eventually redness of eyes. Long hours of watching closely leads to headache. Too much of near work might lead to refractive changes .

So there are certain ways to deal with them .

1} Avoid long hours of unnecessary digital work.

2}If it cannot be avoided take breaks every one and half hour / two hours.

3}Blink consciously.

4} Try to watch television from a distance to avoid too much light reflection in the eye.

5}Keep the room enlightened while using digital media.

6)Try keeping the laptop or desktop slightly above or below the line of vision to allow more light from screen to dissipate

7) Wear correct powered spectacles

8} Take time out for outdoors

9} If required use a lubricating eye drop only with consultation with ophthalmologist & use regularly to keep eyes healthy and relaxed .